Whereas sound strikes at a a lot quicker velocity within the water than in air, the space that sound waves journey is primarily dependent upon ocean temperature and strain. Whereas strain continues to extend as ocean depth will increase, the temperature of the ocean solely decreases as much as a sure level, after which it stays comparatively steady. These elements have a curious impact on how (and the way far) sound waves journey.
Think about a whale is swimming via the ocean and calls out to its pod. The whale produces sound waves that transfer like ripples within the water. Because the whale’s sound waves journey via the water, their velocity decreases with rising depth (because the temperature drops), inflicting the sound waves to refract downward. As soon as the sound waves attain the backside of what’s often called the thermocline layer, the velocity of sound reaches its minimal. The thermocline is a area characterised by fast change in temperature and strain which happens at completely different depths all over the world. Under the thermocline “layer,” the temperature stays fixed, however strain continues to extend. This causes the velocity of sound to extend and makes the sound waves refract upward.
The realm within the ocean the place sound waves refract up and down is named the “sound channel.” The channeling of sound waves permits sound to journey 1000’s of miles with out the sign dropping appreciable power. In reality, hydrophones, or underwater microphones, if positioned on the correct depth, can decide up whale songs and artifical noises from many kilometers away.